Oppositional Defiant Disorder
What is Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
Children who have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more than just argumentative from time to time. All children have days when they don’t obey their parents and/or teachers, perhaps refusing to cooperate or behaving in an especially hostile way.
But when a child regularly engages in a pattern of defiance and hostility, and that behavior begins to affect the child’s social relationships and family life, oppositional defiant disorder may be diagnosed.
ODD is a pattern of behavior that interferes with the child’s normal functioning. It affects as many as 15 per- cent of school-age children.
In very young children, it affects more boys than girls, but as children grow older, both genders are equally affected.
The symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder may include the following:
• Frequently losing one’s temper
• Frequently arguing with parents, teachers, and authority figures
• Refusing to follow the rules
• Offending people on purpose
• Making mistakes and blaming others
• Acting up and blaming others
• Saying hurtful things when angry
What Is the Treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
Most parents of children with ODD have a very difficult time dealing with their kids. Some hope their children will grow out of the condition as they grow older, but this is not usually the case. Most children continue to have ODD, and for some it develops into conduct disorder. Children with CD are at risk for developing even more serious psychiatric disorders as adults, such as antisocial personality disorder.
Treatment for ODD may include several different components, including the following:
• Individual counseling
• Family therapy
• Behavioral training in anger management, communication skills, and social skills
• Parenting skills training to develop skills of behavior modeling, positive reinforcement, conflict management, setting limits and consequences, and stress management